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Policy Issues in Early Care and Education: Recent Citations from the ERIC Database

ERIC Documents

ED435461 PS028025
   Title: Seeds of Success: State Prekindergarten Initiatives, 1998-1999.
   Author(s): Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen; Ewen, Danielle
   Author Affiliation: Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
   Pages: 242
   Publication Date: 1999
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Available for ordering at the Web site of the Children's Defense Fund: http://www.childrensdefense.org or http://www.childrensdefense.org/publications.html#titles
   Availability: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 ($9.95, plus shipping and handling). Tel: 202-662-3652; Fax: 202-628-8333; E-mail: cdfinfo@childrensdefense.org; Web site: www.childrensdefense.org.
   Document Type: Reference materials—Directories/Catalogs (132); Reports—Evaluative (142)
   Many states have initiated prekindergarten programs to better prepare young children to enter school. A "blueprint for quality" was used as the basis for evaluating state prekindergarten initiatives; the blueprint focused on four components: (1) ensuring the availability of prekindergarten; (2) ensuring high-quality prekindergarten; (3) ensuring accessibility of prekindergarten programs; and (4) integrating prekindergarten initiatives with other early childhood programs. The findings indicated that although 42 states now invest in state prekindergarten initiatives, funding in most states is not adequate to meet the need for high-quality programs. The majority of states allow participation by a broad range of providers. However, eight states restrict programs to public schools. Most states limit eligibility to children who are low-income or to 4 year olds. Most states have adopted quality standards addressing some essential quality components. Nevertheless, many state standards do not address the full range of childhood and family needs. States also vary in the degree to which they promote quality through various means. State prekindergarten initiatives are generally structured to provide part-day/part-year programs. A few states either fund and require full-day/full-year services for some families or coordinate resources to provide such programs. Additional barriers remain in a number of states, including transportation and language barriers. In many states, collaborative efforts enable state initiatives to be coordinated with the federal Head Start and child care programs and others. Based on the findings, it was concluded that although states have made significant progress toward the goal of enabling all children to enter school ready to learn, there is still much work to be done. (Evaluation findings and individual state summary pages are appended. Contains 104 references.) (KB)
   Descriptors: Childhood Needs; *Early Intervention; *Educational Quality; Evaluation Criteria; Preschool Education; Program Evaluation; Public Policy; Standards; *State Programs
   Identifiers: Program Characteristics

ED430726 PS027678
   Title: Child Care: An Investment That Works for Colorado. A Child Care Data Report.
   Author(s): Clancy, Monica
   Author Affiliation: Colorado Office of Resource and Referral Agencies, Inc., Englewood. (BBB34493)
   Pages: 27
   Publication Date: 1999
   Sponsoring Agency: Colorado State Dept. of Human Services, Denver. Div. of Child Care. (BBB33690)
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
   Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports—Descriptive (141)
   In the current competitive economy, with welfare reform underway and increasingly limited public resources, Colorado citizens deserve assurance that tax dollars are receiving a maximum return on investment for public expenditures for child care. This report examines the state of child care in Colorado. Part 1 presents information on 1998-1999 state appropriations for child care and other programs, discusses the importance of early intervention, delineates the benefits of high quality child care for children and parents, and profiles the state and selected counties with regard to child care supply, quality, affordability, and availability. This part also describes selected programs, included resource and referral services. Part 2 delineates the characteristics of quality child care, discusses tools for promoting quality, and describes model programs. Part 3 considers the affordability of child care, focusing on funding of services, the role of infrastructure, and the educare model. Part 4 discusses the accessibility of child care, describes the barriers to securing good care, and outlines how child care resource and referral provides and coordinates services and programs for children and families. Each of the four parts contains references. (KB)
   Descriptors: Budgeting; *Budgets; *Children; *Day Care; Day Care Centers; Early Childhood Education; Models; Resource Allocation
   Identifiers: Affordability; Availability (Programs and Services); Child Care Costs; Child Care Needs; *Colorado; Day Care Quality; Educare

ED428862 PS027434
   Title: State Child Care and Early Education Developments: Highlights and Updates for 1998.
   Author(s): Blank, Helen; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine
   Author Affiliation: Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC. (BBB13369)
   Pages: 66
   Publication Date: February 1999
   Sponsoring Agency: Ford Foundation, New York, NY. (QPX27000)@Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD. (BBB32721)@Mott (C.S.) Foundation, Flint, MI. (BBB04331)@A.L. Mailman Family Foundation, Inc. (BBB24207)
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Tel: 202-628-8787; Fax: 202-662-3510; Web site: www.childrensdefense.org
   Document Type: Reports—Descriptive (141)
   One of a series of reports concerning state policies and practices in child care and early education, this report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions during 1998. The report is intended to serve as a supplement and companion to the more comprehensive information presented in "State Developments in Child Care and Early Education 1997." The information in this report was collected through written surveys and phone interviews with advocates in each state. The final draft was reviewed for verification by advocates and state child care administrators in each state. Following an introduction, the report provides information in the following areas: (1) state decisions regarding child care funding; (2) child care subsidy eligibility; (3) state subsidy payment rates; (4) parent subsidy co-payments; (5) child care tax credits; (6) quality and supply: general; (7) quality and supply: care for infants and toddlers; (8) quality and supply: school-age care: (9) quality and supply: odd-hour care: (10) licensing and regulatory changes; (11) Head Start and prekindergarten initiatives; (12) bringing communities together for children; (13) increasing business investment; and (14) changes in child care administration. (EV)
   Descriptors: Administration; *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; Financial Support; *State Action; State Programs; State Regulation; State Standards
   Identifiers: Child Care Costs; *Day Care Quality; Day Care Regulation

ED425835 PS027140
   Title: Prekindergarten Programs Funded by the States: Essential Elements for Policy Makers.
   Author(s) Mitchell, Anne; Ripple, Carol; Chanana, Nina
   Author Affiliation: Families and Work Inst., New York, NY.(BBB29132)
   Pages: 100
   Publication Date: September 1998
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Also available in full text at the Web at the Families and Work Institute Web site: http://www.familiesandwork.org or http://www.familiesandwork.org/announce/prek.html

   Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports--Descriptive (141)
   Target Audience: Policymakers
   This report summarizes the essential elements of state-funded prekindergarten programs across the United States. To be included in the report, a program had to be supported primarily by state funds, have early education as a goal, focus on children younger than kindergarten entry age, and provide direct service to children rather than concentrate primarily on educating their parents. Eleven states were not represented because they did not appropriate state funds for any specific program. The report, comprised of tables and charts, begins with a table of states that fund prekindergarten and/or Head Start programs. The second table indicates agencies eligible to offer prekindergarten programs by state, including public school districts and other agencies. The third table addresses quality control, evaluation, and planning in prekindergarten programs by state, while the fourth table indicates age and income targeting in prekindergarten programs by state. The remainder and bulk of the report details each qualifying state and indicates the following: (1) name of the program(s); (2) history; (3) population served; (4) hours of operation; (5) number of children served; (6) eligible pre-k providers; (7) administrative auspices; (8) program standards; (9) funds; (10) ongoing planning; (11) assessment of program performance; (12) evaluation of program; and (13) program contact. (SD)
   Descriptors: Educational Environment; Educational Finance; *Educational Legislation; *Financial Support; *Preschool Education; Program Descriptions; School Funds; State Action; State Aid; *State Programs
   Identifiers: Project Head Start; *State Initiatives; State Policy; State Role; *United States

ED423072 PS026926
   Title: Financing Services for Young Children and Their Families: New Directions for Research, Development, and Demonstration.
   Author(s): Miller, Jennifer
   Author Affiliation: Finance Project, Washington, DC. (BBB33392)
   Pages: 34
   Publication Date: June 1998
   Sponsoring Agency: Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY. (QPX12280)
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
   Availability: Finance Project, 1000 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC     20005; phone: 202-628-4200; fax: 202-628-4205 ($7.50).
   Document Type: Reports—General (140)
   In 1997, the Finance Project convened a roundtable meeting of representatives from organizations who have been working to improve the financing of services and supports to young children and their families; the meeting was convened with the purpose of mapping an agenda for future research, development, and demonstration to support improvements in early childhood financing. This paper organizes the meeting's recommendations into a coherent framework for a research and demonstration agenda. Three principles emerging from the meeting are highlighted: the need for community-based, family-focused, preventive, and comprehensive services; the importance of cultivating informal support systems and formalized services; and the realization that financing strategies are a means to an end, inextricably linked to strategies for service delivery. The paper begins by outlining the major strategic directions for change that emerged from the roundtable discussion, including realigning financing strategies to adapt to changing social policy environment, making better use of fiscal resources, developing the infrastructure to support improved financing, and building public will, leadership, and resources to support change. Section 2 discusses how these strategic directions translate into a research, demonstration, and tool-building agenda, with proposed activities in three major categories: (1) research, including theory building, policy research, and evaluation; (2) demonstration projects, especially how a wide range of financing strategies can achieve better results for children and families; and (3) tool-building, involving further developing and making accessible to states and communities a wide variety of models and tools, such as results-based budgeting, resource mapping, and the use of data to inform decision making. (KB)
   Descriptors: Administration; Budgeting; Change Strategies; Community Services; Day Care; Early Childhood Education; Early Intervention; *Educational Finance; *Family Programs; Financial Policy; *Financial Support; Models; Preschool Education; Privatization; Public Policy; Research Needs; Research Problems; Social Services; *Young Children
   Identifiers: Alternative Financing; *Family Support; Financing Options

ED425834 PS027139
   Title: Change Agent for a Changing World. NAEYC Annual Report, October 1, 1997-
   September 30, 1998.
   Author Affiliation: National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC. (FGK56164)
   Pages: 15
   Publication Date: November 1998
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036-1426; Tel: 800-424-2460 (Toll Free); Tel: 202-232-8777; Web site: www.naeyc.org
   Document Type: Reports—Descriptive (141)
   This annual report of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is organized around the organization's three goals: (1) improving professional practice by promoting standards of excellence among and providing information and resources to early childhood professionals; (2) improving understanding and support for high quality early childhood programs among parents and the general public, as well as policy makers and the media; and (3) building and maintaining a strong, inclusive organization. In addressing the first goal, the report describes the following contributions to the development of young children: (1) the first videoconference entitled, "The Leading Edge"; (2) new position statement entitled "Learning to Read and Write"; (3) enhancements to NAEYC's accreditation system; (4) improvement in information exchange and idea testing; and (5) taking and promoting positions. In addressing the second goal, the report describes the following contributions: (1) new public policy activities; and (2) new public awareness activities. In addressing the third goal, the report describes the Summit II conference, held to explore structural changes necessary to meet the needs of the membership. The report concludes with a brief financial summary for the year. (SD)
   Descriptors: *Change Agents; *Change Strategies; Child Advocacy; Early Childhood Education; Educational Change; Organizational Change; Organizational Development; *Organizational Effectiveness; *Organizational Objectives; *Organizations (Groups); Planning; *Self Evaluation (Groups)
   Identifiers: *National Association Educ of Young Children

ED418775 PS026270
   Title: The State of Early Childhood Programs in America: Challenges for the New Millennium.
   Author(s): Day, Barbara; Yarbrough, Tracie
   Pages: 18
   Publication Date: February 1998
   Notes: Paper presented at the Forum on Early Childhood, Science, Mathematics, and    Technology Education (Washington, DC, February 6-8, 1998).
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
   Document Type: Reports—Evaluative (142)
   When compared to other industrialized countries, America ranks first in many areas, including military technology and Gross Domestic Product. However, in areas related to child welfare, America does not rate so high. American youngsters are frequently placed in physical danger and many begin school ill-prepared to learn. In March 1997, the Children's Defense Fund released 20 key facts about American children which illustrate the severe problems facing the youth of America. These facts are addressed in this report in terms of how to combat the problems. The first section of the report addresses the need for early childhood education. This section argues that large investments in education must be made at the early childhood level, noting that this investment has the potential not only to properly prepare children educationally, but to address social problems such as violence and delinquency; promote good health; develop children's social, physical, emotional, and psychological development; strengthen families; and provide a safe and caring environment. The report's second section addresses barriers to high-quality experiences, including poverty, participation rates, and quality of care. The third section addresses challenges for the future, including: providing a caring environment for children; addressing standards of quality; providing developmentally appropriate practice and learning environments; safe environments; engaging children; and an integrated curriculum. Contains 22 references. (SD)
   Descriptors: *Child Advocacy; *Child Development; Child Health; *Child Welfare; *Childhood Needs; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Development; Educational Improvement; *Educational Quality; Government Role; Poverty; Well Being; Youth Problems
   Identifiers: Childrens Defense Fund; Developmentally Appropriate Programs; *United States

ED430716 PS027668
   Title: Caring for Our Children: Our Most Precious Investment.
   Author Affiliation: Little Hoover Commission, Sacramento, CA. (BBB33649)
   Pages: 116
   Publication Date: September 1998
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
   Availability: Little Hoover Commission, 925 L Street, Suite 805, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: 916-445-2125; Fax: 916-322-7709; Web site: www.lhc.ca.gov; e-mail: little.hoover@lhc.ca.gov ($5).
   Document Type: Reports—Evaluative (142)
   Child care has become a central issue to most Californians and is increasingly important to policymakers. The Little Hoover Commission examined child care in California, focusing on the long-standing competition between the quantity of services available and the quality of services provided. Information was obtained from an advisory committee of over 100 child care experts, from witnesses at two public hearings, numerous studies on child care issues, material gathered from think tanks, and interviews of child care experts. Four major conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the data. First, California lacks and needs an effective strategy to supply the high-quality child care that working families need. The state should adopt a child care master plan to guide its efforts to help families and communities meet child care needs. Second, shortages of licensed child care extend statewide and are especially severe in low-income, rural, and minority communities. The state should set a goal of expanding child care capacity so all Californians have access to services. Third, the subsidized child care system serves a fraction of eligible families and services are not well-matched to community needs. There should be sufficient funding for subsidized child care and the system should be fundamentally reformed. Fourth, state policies and other factors subvert the goal of assuring all children high-quality care and early education opportunities. The state should undertake a broad-based effort to improve the quality of child care and expand early education opportunities. (Two appendices list advisory committee members and public hearing witnesses. Contains approximately 50 references.) (KB)
   Descriptors: *Child Welfare; *Children; *Day Care; Early Childhood Education; Government Role; Legislation; *Public Policy; State Action; State Government; State Programs
   Identifiers: Affordability; Availability (Programs and Services); California; Child Care Costs; *Child Care Legislation; *Child Care Needs; Day Care Quality; Day Care Regulations

ED423956 PS026589
   Title: Investing in Child Care: Challenges Facing Working Parents and the Private Sector Response.
   Author Affiliation: Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC. (BBB04222)
   Pages: 63
   Publication Date: 1998
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
   Document Type: Reports—Descriptive (141)
   This report of a group of business and labor leaders convened at the White House Conference on Child Care in October 1997 identifies and provides examples of a variety of ways that businesses can promote access to child care for their employees. The report begins with a letter from Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin. Following an introduction describing the challenges facing working parents, Section 1 discusses the concerns of working parents, including the financial burdens presented by child care and those related to the quality of child care. Section 2 deals with the economic impact of child care, including its impact on employee productivity, labor force participation trends, and child care costs. Section 3 presents the results of a survey of businesses and examples of best practices, including resource and referral programs, public-private partnerships, corporate and labor management partnerships, on- and off-site child care, sick child care, and out-of-school care. Findings of the survey indicate that child care resource and referral is a very popular benefit, and that flexible work schedules are provided by a substantial number of employers. Section 4 presents recommendations for businesses in enhancing their employee's access to child care. The report concludes that investments in child care can pay off in real dividends for employers and employees. Appendices include contact information for child care support organizations and state resources and referral networks. (Contains 28 references.) (KB)
   Descriptors: *Day Care; Early Childhood Education; *Employed Parents; *Employer Supported Day Care; Family Work Relationship; Fringe Benefits; Parent Attitudes
   Identifiers: Availability (Programs and Services); Child Care Costs; Day Care Quality; White House Conference on Child Care

ED417807 PS026359
   Title: Building Blocks: A Legislator's Guide to Child Care Policy.
   Author(s): Culkin, Mary L.; Groginsky, Scott; Christian, Steve
   Author Affiliation: National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO. (BBB24481)
   Pages: 106
   Publication Date: December 1997
   Sponsoring Agency: Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, PA. (BBB28123)@A.L. Mailman Family Foundation, Inc. (BBB24207)
   ISBN: 1-55516-757-8
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: National Conference of State Legislatures, 1560 Broadway, Suite 700, Denver, CO 80202 (Item No. 6140, $30).
   Document Type: Guides—Non-classroom (055); Reports—Evaluative (142)
   The care and education of the youngest children in the United States has become a critical public policy issue affecting millions of families. This guide closely examines the issues and tradeoffs in key child care policy decisions that face state legislators. The guide provides a discussion of state efforts to build supply, improve quality, and develop effective subsidy systems for low-income families. By presenting research findings and policy options about supply, quality, and funding for low-income child care, as well as demographic trends, this guide offers a context within which state lawmakers can plan for successful, lasting effects on current and future generations. Following an executive summary and introduction, the guide's chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Supply of Child Care," through facilities development, public/private partnerships, loans and grants, resource and referral services, and expanding out-of-school time activities; (2) "Improving the Quality of Child Care," through regulations, accreditation and additional standards, training, career development and compensation, and quality early childhood education initiatives; (3) "Funding Low-Income Child Care," including eligibility issues, parent fees, and reimbursement rates and policies; (4) "State Experiences," in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Oregon. A brief conclusion notes that recent changes in federal funding offer state lawmakers an opportunity to establish coordinated early childhood systems that help families of all income levels maintain employment and receive family support services. The guide contains a resource list and 56 references. (EV)
   Descriptors: Child Care Occupations; *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; Financial Support; Policy Analysis; *Policy Formation; State Aid; State Government; *State Programs
   Identifiers: Child Care Costs; Child Care Legislation; *Child Care Needs; *Day Care Quality

ED426760 PS026963
   Title: Strategies To Improve Quality in Subsidized Child Care. CCAC Issue Brief #8.
   Author Affiliation: Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY. (BBB23454)
   Source: Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief, n8 Dec 1997 Pages: 9
   Publication Date: December 1997
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
   Availability: Child Care Action Campaign, 330 Seventh Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10001; Tel: 212-239-0138; Fax: 212-268-6515 ($3 prepaid).
   Document Type: Collected works—Serials (022)
   Recent state efforts reflect a growing commitment to building state child care systems, but increasing child care capacity while simultaneously designing and expanding good quality, new child care systems remains a challenge. On November 17, 1997, the Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) conducted an audioconference that focused on how Wisconsin, North Carolina, and New Jersey are using federal and state funds and private funding to improve the quality of subsidized child care in both formal and informal settings. The presenters were David Edie, director of the Wisconsin Office of Child Care; Sue Russell, executive direction of Day Care Services Association and the TEACH Early Childhood Project; and Edna Ranck, child care coordinator and the New Jersey Department of Human Services. This issue brief summarizes information from the conference presentations, which addressed the following questions: (1) "How does your state define quality and what methods are being used to improve it?"; and (2) "Which of your successful strategies should other states consider?" (EV)
   Descriptors: *Day Care; Grants; Program Descriptions; *State Federal Aid; *State Programs
   Identifiers: Child Care Costs; Child Care Needs; Day Care Quality; New Jersey; North Carolina; *Subsidized Child Care Services; Wisconsin

ED418772 PS026212
   Title: State Developments in Child Care and Early Education, 1997.
   Author(s): Blank, Helen; Adams, Gina
   Author Affiliation: Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC. (BBB13369)
    Pages: 83
   Publication Date: December 1997
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; telephone: 202-628-8787 ($5.95).
   Document Type: Reports—Evaluative (142)
   Access to quality child care is critical to working parents. Prior to the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states had a significant level of responsibility for child care, and the 1996 welfare reform law further expanded the state's role. This report examines state efforts in child care and early education in 1997 in light of these changes. The major state developments in 1997 are divided into several categories, including: changes in child care funding, reductions in guarantees of child care assistance, changes in child care subsidy policies, developments in quality investments, licensing activities, school-age care, and state prekindergarten initiatives. Following a brief summary, section one of the report addresses state decisions regarding child care funding, including increasing state funding and returning federal funds. Section two addresses child care assistance, including assistance to families below certain income levels, while section three addresses changes in child care subsidy policies, including state reimbursement rates and eligibility issues. Section four addresses actions related to quality and supply, including licensing, regulatory changes, and protection of children. Section five addresses changes in child care administration and efforts to create unified policies. Section six addresses Head Start and prekindergarten initiatives. The final section of the report addresses additional new ideas and developments in early education and child care initiatives. (SD)
   Descriptors: Child Advocacy; Child Welfare; Childhood Needs; *Day Care; *Day Care Centers; Day Care Effects; Early Childhood Education; Educational Quality; Federal     Aid; Federal Legislation; *State Aid; State Federal Aid; State Government; *State Programs; Welfare Services
   Identifiers: Child Care Costs; Child Care Legislation; *Child Care Needs; Day Care Licensing; *Day Care Quality; Personal Responsibility and Work Opp Recon Act; Project Head Start; Welfare Reform

ED417027 PS026337
   Title: Not by Chance: Creating an Early Care and Education System for America's Children. Abridged Report. The Quality 2000 Initiative.
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L.; Cohen, Nancy E.
   Author Affiliation: Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Bush Center in Child Development and Social Policy. (BBB17139)
   Pages: 83
   Publication Date: 1997
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
   Availability: Bush Center in Child Development and Social Policy at Yale University, 310 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511.
   Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports—Descriptive (141)
   This report of the Quality 2000 Initiative documents the quality crisis in early care and education in the United States, discussing the reasons for this crisis and suggesting a plan for improvement. Part 1 of the report: describes the mediocre quality of care cited in the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study, the erosion of quality since 1980, and problems in staff training and educational levels; details the roots of the quality crisis; and maintains that the knowledge and political will to develop an effective early care and education system are in place. Part 2 discusses eight recommendations for developing this system: (1) use a wide range of approaches to achieve quality; (2) focus on goals and results for children; (3) place parents and families at the core of early care and education programs; (4) require staff to be licensed; (5) expand the content of training and education; (6) eliminate exemptions and streamline and enforce facility licensing; (7) raise new funds and set aside ten percent for quality and infrastructure; and (8) create local and state early care and education boards. Part 3 of the report, "Realizing the Vision," examines a range of existing initiatives or programs that can be built upon. This part also identifies three key strategies—conceptual exploration, comprehensive demonstration, and broad-based mobilization—and concludes with a call to action, suggesting who should do what to carry out the vision. The report's four appendices list task force and related meeting participants, consultant-partners, and commissioned working papers. Each part contains references. (Author/KB)
   Descriptors: *Change Agents; *Change Strategies; Child Caregivers; *Day Care; *Day Care Effects; Early Childhood Education; Infant Care; Infants; Parent Participation; Public Policy; Young Children
   Identifiers: Caregiver Qualifications; Caregiver Training; Day Care Licensing; *Day Care Quality; Day Care Registration; Day Care Regulations; Quality 2000 Initiative

ED409121 PS025643
   Title: Reinventing Early Care and Education: A Vision for a Quality System.
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L., Ed.; Cohen, Nancy E., Ed.
   Pages: 365
   Publication Date: 1996
   ISBN: 0-7879-0319-1
   Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, Seventh Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104-1342; phone: 800-956-7739; fax: 800-605-2665 ($39.95, plus shipping).
   Document Type: Book (010); Collected works—General (020)
   Although early care and education have gained some momentum in recent years, shortfalls in quality are still pervasive. This book defines the elements of a high-quality system and suggests strategies for improvement. Frontmatter includes a preface, editors' and contributors' biographies, and an introduction entitled "The Changing Context of American Early Care and Education" (Sharon L. Kagan and others). The first part of the book, "Quality Programs: The Case for an Expanded Definition," contains four chapters: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Quality in Early Care and Education" (Mary Larner); (2) "Reframing the Quality Issue" (Deborah Phillips); (3) "International Approaches to Defining Quality" (Jennifer Bush and Deborah Phillips); and (4) "Multicultural Perspectives on Quality" (Nancy E. Cohen and Delia Pompa). The second part, "The Infrastructure: The Case for a Quality System," contains six chapters: (1) "Licensing: Lessons from Other Occupations" (Anne Mitchell); (2) "Training and Professional Development: International Approaches" (Eliza Pritchard); (3) "Regulation: Alternative Approaches from Other Fields" (Katherine L. Scurria); (4) "Governance: Child Care, Federalism, and Public Policy" (William T. Gormley, Jr.); (5) "Funding and Financing: Moving toward a More Universal System" (Martin H. Gerry); and (6) "Quality Infrastructure for Family Child Care" (Shelby M. Miller). The third part, "Implementing Change," contains five chapters: (1) "Media and Mass Communications Strategies" (Kathy Bonk and Meredith Wiley); (2) "Citizen Participation: Transforming Access into Influence" (Christopher Howard); (3) "Organizing Communities and Constituents for Change" (Ernesto Cortes, Jr.); (4) "Understanding the Complexities of Educational Change" (Ann Lieberman and others); and (5) "The Synchrony of Stakeholders: Lessons from the Disabilities Rights Movement" (H. Rutherford Turnbull and Ann P. Turnbull). The fourth part, "Creating a Quality Early Care and Education System," contains two chapters: (1) "A Vision for a Quality Early Care and Education System" (Sharon L. Kagan and Nancy E. Cohen); and (2) "Getting from Here to There: The Process and the Players" (Nancy E. Cohen and Sharon L. Kagan). Each chapter contains references. (LPP)
   Descriptors: Certification; *Change Strategies; Citizen Participation; Community Action; *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Change; *Educational Improvement; *Educational Quality; Family Day Care; Finance Reform; Financial Support; Governance; Government Role; Parent Attitudes; Professional Development; Professional Training; Public Policy
   Identifiers: Day Care Quality; *Quality of Care

ED416989 PS026261
   Title: Access to Quality Early Childhood Care and Education. Background Paper for the Quality Child Care Think Tank. Draft.
   Author(s): Brandon, Richard N.; Smith, Diana
   Author Affiliation: Washington Univ., Seattle. Human Services Policy Center. (BBB34378)
   Pages: 50
   Publication Date: July 1996
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Document Type: Reports—General (140)
   This background paper discusses the current system of child care finance in Washington State and analyzes options for improvement. It describes prominent characteristics of the early childhood care and education system, findings relating program quality to staff/child ratios and staff educational levels, characteristics of quality, parent preferences about care, needs for quality care, and the current financing system. A model of financing is presented involving individual employee benefit accounts for early childhood care and education. These accounts would have a 50/50 employer match which can be saved and invested, and drawn down as needed. The government would provide tax incentives to employees and employers to create a backup pool for non-covered employees and to invest in teacher training. Preliminary cost estimates for parents, government, community, and employers are discussed. The report also examines the increased costs of moving to a high quality child care and education system. Mechanisms to directly link funding to quality through a combination of regulation and incentives are examined. The report's appendix compares early childhood care and education in the United States and other countries, delineates different ways to finance early childhood education, and illustrates the use of sliding fee scales. An annotated list of national and state resources in child care, early education, and work/family relationship concludes the report. (KB)
   Descriptors: *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Finance; Educational Quality; *Financial Support; Government Role; Parent Financial Contribution; Parent Role
   Identifiers: Access to Services; Availability (Programs and Services); Business Role; Day Care Quality; Quality of Care

ED411038 PS025180
   Title: Community Mobilization: Strategies To Support Young Children and Their Families.
   Author(s): Dombro, Amy Laura; O'Donnell, Nina Sazer; Galinsky, Ellen; Melchar, Sarah Gilkeson; Farber, Abby
   Author Affiliation: Families and Work Inst., New York, NY. (BBB29132)
   Pages: 407
   Publication Date: 1996
   ISBN: 1-888324-03-1
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: Families and Work Institute, Attn: Publications Order, 320 Seventh Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10001; phone: 212-465-2044; fax: 212-465-8637; world wide web: www.familiesandwork.org ($25, plus $3.50 shipping).
   Document Type: Guides—Non-classroom (055)
   Noting the increasing need for public officials, practitioners, business leaders, concerned citizens, and parents to work together to improve the quality of life for young children and families, this book for community organizations provides information needed to begin or enhance local or statewide community mobilization efforts. Included are descriptions of initiatives based on information gathered through interviews with staff conducted over a 3-year period. The book begins with a definition of community mobilization, its principles, and the origins and stages of community mobilization efforts. The remaining sections detail the three stages of community mobilization, using a question-answer format, and including information from specific initiatives to illustrate particular points. Section 1, "Creating a Vision: Promising Practices," contains chapters on getting started, assessing needs, mobilizing the voice of parents, and involving businesses. Section 2, "Implementing the Vision: Creating Quality Services for Young Children and Their Families," includes chapters on reforming communities to serve families of young children through coordinating services, systemic planning and reform, and institutionalizing integrated services. Also included in this section are chapters on improving and assuring the quality of services through promoting professional development of the early education and care practitioner, involving parents, improving state regulations, promoting accreditation of early childhood practitioners, and improving the compensation of the child care workforce. Section 3, "Sustaining the Vision: Assuring Lasting Change," addresses maintaining momentum, developing financing mechanisms, engaging the public, and assessing results. Each chapter contains references. Two appendices detail state initiatives and describe national organizations. (Author/KB)
   Descriptors: Change Agents; *Community Action; Community Attitudes; *Community Cooperation; Community Coordination; Community Involvement; Community Leaders; *Community Programs; Community Support; Compensation (Remuneration); Credentials; Day Care; Early Childhood Education; Financial Support; *Integrated Services; Needs Assessment; Parent Participation; Professional Development; Public Agencies;     School Community Relationship; Social Services; State Regulation; *Young Children
   Identifiers: Business Community Relationship; Parent Community Relationship; Public Awareness

ED397538 EA027934
   Title: Early Childhood Reform in Seven Communities: Front-Line Practice, Agency Management, and Public Policy. {Volume I: Final Technical Report.} Studies of Education Reform.
   Author(s): Schultz, Tom; And Others
   Author Affiliation: National Association of State Boards of Education, Alexandria, VA. (BBB21902); Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA. (BBB26569)
   Pages: 126
   Publication Date: October 1996
   Notes: For Volumes I-III of this particular study, see EA 027 934-936. For all 12 final reports (36 volumes) in this series of studies, see EA 027 926-961.
   Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)
   Contract No: RR91172007
   Report No: ORAD-96-1320
   ISBN: 0-16-048871-0
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
   Availability: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
   Document Type: Reports—Research (143)
   An era of substantial growth in investment of resources, program development, and research has led to tangible gains in the scope and quality of early childhood education programs. However, the system of early childhood education programs is plagued by unequal access and inconsistent, inadequate levels of quality. Additionally, the focus of federal policy debate has shifted from improving specific programs to more global and ideological concerns of federalism and fiscal policy. This study was designed to provide information about the effects of current government policy and funding efforts on the shape and quality of local early childhood agencies. The study analyzed and documented significant local examples of innovative and successful reforms in early childhood services. The document, the first of three in a series, contains an analysis of past research and recent policy trends and presents seven case studies of local early childhood initiatives (including Head Start grantees, local school districts, and child-care agencies). All projects serve children from birth to 5 years of age from families of low to moderate incomes. The programs involve sponsorship by one or more state or federal programs and include a significant component of outreach, involvement, and service to parents and other family members. The report highlights strategies to promote child development, strategies to serve and involve families, management strategies, and policy effects in local agencies. Nine policy recommendations are offered, some of which include: (1) coordinate expansion of federal and state public investment to equalize access to quality early childhood programs; (2) support funding rates that are consistent with program and work-force quality; (3) encourage local and private-sector investment in early childhood services; (4) set program standards that are also flexible for meeting local needs; (5) support local agencies; (6) build a supportive infrastructure and management-development system to support program quality and innovation; (7) create leadership/management development system; (8) ease administrative burdens in administering multiple public early childhood programs; and (9) build community planning and responsibility for each childhood service. To improve practice, the report recommends that program administrators refine and promote teaching excellence within the paradigm of developmentally appropriate practice; continue to foster staff development; promote continuity with elementary schools and successful transitions; encourage adult family members' participation; help staff members negotiate the boundaries between their work and family issues; and define and implement high-quality front-line practices. Three tables are included. (Contains 153 references.) (LMI)
   Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; *Early Intervention; *Educational Cooperation; Educational Finance; Family School Relationship; Federal Programs; Program Administration; Program Effectiveness; *Public Policy; Social Services; Young Children
   Identifiers: *Studies of Education Reform (OERI)

ED394659 PS024023
   Title: Everybody's Children: Child Care as a Public Problem.
   Author(s): Gormley, William T., Jr.
   Author Affiliation: Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. (BBB01336)
   Pages: 243
   Publication Date: 1995
   ISBN: 0-8157-3223-6
   Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
   Availability: The Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036 (paperback: ISBN-0-8157-3223-6, $16.95; hardcover: ISBN-0-8157-3224-4).
   Document Type: Book (010); Reports—Evaluative (142)
   In the face of social changes that are increasing the demand for available, affordable, quality child care, it is difficult to continue to think of child care as a purely private issue. This book presents an analysis of the state of American child care. It evaluates child care policies and the national attention given to young children and their families. There are seven chapters in this book. Chapter 1, "Private Headaches, Public Dilemmas," sets forth the position that child care has not yet secured a firm niche on the public agenda, and emphasizes the reasons why the government has special responsibilities to care for poor children who need high-quality child care. This chapter also discusses the research methodology used for the research reported in the book. Chapter 2, "Child Care as a Social Problem," describes recent changes in the child care market from work, family, parental, and societal perspectives. Chapter 3, "Child Care as an Institutional Problem," considers both the formal and informal institutions that together comprise the child care infrastructure. This chapter also introduces several procedural criteria that may be used to evaluate the current system. Chapter 4, "Markets and Black Markets," focuses on the quality of care in two settings: for-profit group day care centers and unregulated family day care homes. Chapter 5, "Do's, Don'ts, and Dollars," subjects government to the same scrutiny that the child care industry received in Chapter 4. This chapter focuses on regulatory reform, categorical grants, and block grants. Chapter 6, "Do-Gooders, Go-Getters, and Go-Betweens," claims that intermediary institutions—schools, churches, businesses, and resource and referral agencies—should be encouraged to provide, subsidize, further develop, and improve child care. Chapter 7, "Reinventing Child Care," discusses four kinds of child care reform models and concludes that with the right incentives, coordination, and discretion, a better world for children can be achieved. Contains an index and a list of references for each chapter. (MOK)
   Descriptors: Business Responsibility; Change Strategies; Child Rearing; Church Role; *Day Care; Day Care Centers; Early Childhood Education; Evaluation Criteria; *Evaluative Thinking; Family Day Care; *Government Role; Parent Role; School Role; Social Change; *Social Problems; *Standards
   Identifiers: Analytic Approach; *Child Care Needs; *Day Care Quality; Family Resource and Support Programs; Infrastructure

ED413978 PS024779
   Title: Meeting Family and Community Needs: The Three C's of Early Childhood Education.
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L.
   Pages: 17
   Publication Date: December 1995
   Notes: Paper presented at the Australia and New Zealand Conference on the First Years of School (6th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, January 1996).
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
   Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
   The efforts of those interested in the advancement of early childhood education have been focused mainly on pedagogical issues. Today, given the increasing complexities of life, it is an intellectual and functional imperative to take a contextual/developmental approach to early childhood education. This approach addresses two parameters of children's lives: their families and the communities. Part of this approach is to identify the following critical issues: (1) acknowledging the critical social trends that affect children and their families; (2) meeting the needs of diverse populations and communities; (3) discerning what families want and what communities provide; (4) establishing priorities between services to children and services to families; (5) understanding and addressing the lack of continuity and coherence; (6) deciding to focus on direct services or on the infrastructure; and (7) redressing the limited understanding of and constituency of early childhood education. The other part of the contextual approach is to address change, continuity, and collaboration. Through analytic investigation, educators need to examine not only demographic changes, but also technological, data, and political changes that influence children, their families, and communities. Strategic planning for change will produce the contextual changes that are needed for the support of children and their families. In order to have more durable and systematic changes, the creation of opportunities for continuity among communities—based on the knowledge acquired in the fields in the past—is necessary. Finally, it is important to have collaboration not only within the field but also outside the field. Such an outside collaboration may involve families, communities, and social, economic, and political leaders. (Contains 41 references.) (AS)
   Descriptors: *Change Strategies; *Community; Community Influence; Community Services; Context Effect; Cooperation; *Early Childhood Education; Family Needs; Family (Sociological Unit); *Social Change
   Identifiers: Continuity; Socioeconomic Diversity

ED412023 PS025900
   Title: Promoting High-Quality Family Child Care: A Policy Perspective for Quality 2000.
   Author(s): Modigliani, Kathy
   Author Affiliation: Wheelock Coll., Boston, MA. (MGG96638)
   Pages: 52
   Publication Date: January 1994
   Notes: This publication was originally published as a Working Paper by Quality 2000, Advancing Early Care and Education Directed by Sharon Lynn Kagan at Yale University.
   Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
   Availability: Family Child Care Project, Wheelock College, 200 The Riverway, Boston, MA 02215 ($7).
   Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Reports—General (140)
   Although family child care has the potential to offer young children individual attention and customized, educational programs to help them thrive, the quality of these programs is dependent upon a workforce that is at the bottom of the occupational status and pay hierarchy. This report examines ways to promote high quality in family child care programs. Part 1, "Family Child Care Today," considers the demographics of family child care, its strengths and liabilities, and the role of education. Part 2, "Strategies for Supporting Quality in Family Child Care," examines characteristics of appropriate training and incentives for training family child care providers; ways to ensure small group size and low adult-child ratio; family child care regulations; methods of ensuring continuing professional development among providers; and infrastructure support such as provider associations, resource and referral agencies, and food programs. Part 3, "Barriers That Inhibit Quality in Family Child Care," addresses low compensation, low social status and cultural devaluation, low job retention of providers, family child care costs, inadequate financing, and the absence of a national alliance for early care and education. Part 4, "A Vision of Support for the Quality of Family Child Care," examines the coordination of effort at the national and community level necessary to secure comprehensive support for the quality of family child care, including a major shift in public opinion, federal legislation, foundation and corporation funding, community provider support, parent support, and improvement of compensation for providers. (Contains 92 references.) (Author/KB)
   Descriptors: *Children; Compensation (Remuneration); Early Childhood Education; *Family Day Care; Government Role; Lunch Programs; Organizations (Groups); Policy Analysis; Professional Development; Program Implementation
   Identifiers: Child Care Costs; Child Care Legislation; Child Care Needs; Child Care Resource Centers; *Day Care Quality; Day Care Regulations; Resource and Referral Service

Journal Articles

EJ586497 PS529254
   Title: From Our President. Painting a New "Think": An Early Care and Education System?
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L.
   Source: Young Children, v54 n3 p2 May 1999
   Publication Date: 1999
   ISSN: 0044-0728
   Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
   Visualizes future of early childhood education and care in terms of quality. Advocates quality in things that scaffold programs: quality training, education, and credentialing for staff; efficient, quality regulations that truly protect children and families; quality financing; effective accountability; and functional governance. Contends quality in programs can not be achieved without this scaffolding or infrastructure. (AMC)
   Descriptors: Child Advocacy; Early Childhood Education; Educational Finance; *Educational Improvement; *Educational Policy; *Educational Quality; Teacher Education Programs
   Identifiers: Day Care Quality; *Infrastructure; *Quality Indicators; Quality of     Care

EJ578094 PS528750
   Title: Policy Options for Early Childhood: A Model for Decision Making.
   Author(s): Gallagher, James; Rooney, Robin
   Source: Early Education and Development, v10 n1 p69-82 Jan 1999
   Publication Date: 1999
   Notes: Special Issue on: "Unresolved Issues in Early Childhood Programming."
   ISSN: 1040-9289
   Notes a need for policies to provide comprehensive health, social work, and early-education services for young children and their families. Presents a decision-making matrix, which displays major policy options for early childhood and a range of criteria by which to judge the relative efficacy of those options. (Author/LPP)
   Descriptors: *Childhood Needs; Day Care; Decision Making; Federal Aid; Government Role; *Public Policy; Young Children
   Identifiers: Day Care Quality; Government Subsidies

EJ584469 PS529220
   Title: Lighting the Path: Developing Leadership in Early Education.
   Author(s): Taba, Sharon; And Others
   Source: Early Childhood Education Journal, v26 n3 p173-77 Spr 1999
   Publication Date: 1999
   ISSN: 1082-3301
   Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120); Reports—Descriptive (141)
   Discusses the urgent need to develop leadership in early childhood education in order to improve the quality of programming for infants, toddlers, young children, and their families. Describes five areas of leadership skills: advocacy, administrative, community, conceptual, and career development. (KB)
   Descriptors: *Child Advocacy; Early Childhood Education; Educational Quality; Empowerment; Infants; *Leadership; *Leadership Qualities; *Preschool Teachers; Professional Development; School Community Relationship
   Identifiers: *Educational Leadership

EJ584405 PS529029
   Title: Going Beyond "Z". From Our President.
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L.
   Source: Young Children, v54 n2 p2 Mar 1999
   Publication Date: 1999
   ISSN: 0044-0728
   Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
   Explores an anecdote about a parent withdrawing her child from a child care program as a metaphor for the current status of early childhood to illustrate the pedagogical, practice, and policy dilemmas challenging the field. Maintains that pedagogy, practice, and policy are inseparable and that early childhood professionals must be cognizant of their multiple roles. (Author/KB)
   Descriptors: Caregiver Role; *Child Caregivers; Early Childhood Education; Educational Policy; Educational Quality; *Preschool Teachers; Professional Development; *Teacher Role; Young Children
   Identifiers: Day Care Quality

EJ554335 PS527063
   Title: Another Growth Year for Employer Child Care.
   Author(s): Neugebauer, Roger
   Source: Child Care Information Exchange, n117 p13-16 Sep-Oct 1997
   Publication Date: 1997
   ISSN: 0164-8527
   Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports—General (140)
   This eighth annual status report analyzes work-site child care trends. Trends indicate demand for employer child care continues to increase, is spreading to a broader array of companies, and companies are exploring more options. The report also details recent legislation—the Child Care Infrastructure Act—and corporate child care gains. (SD)
   Descriptors: Child Caregivers; Child Rearing; Corporate Support; *Corporations; *Day Care Centers; Early Childhood Education; *Employer Supported Day Care
   Identifiers: *Child Care Legislation; *Child Care Needs

EJ551003 PS526984
   Title: Highlights of the Quality 2000 Initiative: Not By Chance. Public Policy Report.
   Author(s): Kagan, Sharon L.; Neuman, Michelle J.
   Source: Young Children, v52 n6 p54-62 Sep 1997
   Publication Date: 1997
   ISSN: 0044-0728
   Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080); Reports—Descriptive (141)
   Describes the Quality 2000 Advancing Early Care and Education Initiative whose purpose is to address the quality crisis in early childhood education. Details eight areas of improvement and recommendations: (1) quality; (2) results; (3) family engagement; (4) staff credentialing; (5) staff training; (6) licensing; (7) funding; and (8) governance structures. (SD)
   Descriptors: Change Strategies; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Change; *Educational Improvement; Educational Needs; Educational Objectives; *Educational Quality; *Excellence in Education; Financial Support; Instructional Effectiveness; Outcomes of Education; Parent Participation; Program Effectiveness; Quality Control; School Restructuring; Standards; Teacher Education; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teaching Skills
   Identifiers: Day Care Quality; *Quality 2000; *Quality Indicators